ANNAN, a royal burgh, and a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 16 miles (E. S. E.) from Dumfries, and 79 (s.) from Edinburgh; containing, with part of Brydekirk quoad sacra, 5471 inhabitants, of whom 4409 are in the burgh. This place, which is of remote antiquity, and supposed to have been a Roman station of some importance, was, after the departure of the Romans from Britain, occupied by the ancient inhabitants till their expulsion by the Northumbrian Saxons. After the dissolution of the Saxon heptarchy, the surrounding territories were annexed to the kingdom of Scotland, in the reign of Malcolm Canmore; and the lands were subsequently granted to Robert de Bruce, Lord of Annandale, who built a castle for the defence of the town, in which he occasionally resided. From its proximity to the English border, the town was frequently plundered during the Border warfare, and sometimes burnt; and it suffered greatly in the wars consequent on the disputed succession to the Scottish throne, in the reign of Edward I. of England. In 1298, the town and church were burnt by the English, but were subsequently restored by Robert Bruce, who, in 1306, ascended the throne of Scotland; and in 1332, Edward Baliol, after his coronation at Scone, repaired to the castle of Annan, whither he summoned the nobility of Scotland, to pay him homage. During his continuance here, Archibald Douglas, the firm adherent of the Bruces, having collected a force of 1000 cavalry at Moffat, advanced to Annan during the night, and having surprised and defeated his guards, Baliol was induced to make his escape from the castle, and, hastily mounting a horse with neither saddle nor bridle, with considerable difficulty reached Carlisle, without a single attendant.
   In 1547, the town was plundered and burnt by the English under Wharton, accompanied by the Earl of Lennox, on which occasion, as the castle was at that time dismantled, the inhabitants fortified the church, and for some time successfully resisted the invaders. In the two following years, the town and the surrounding district were continually infested by the predatory incursions of the English borderers, against whose attacks the governor, Maxwell, levied a tax of £4000, for repairing the castle, and placing it in a state of defence. During the regency of Mary of Guise, on the arrival of a large body of French soldiers in the river Clyde, the greater number of them were stationed in the town, for the protection of the neighbourhood; and in 1570, the castle was again destroyed by the English forces, under the Earl of Sussex; but it was afterwards restored, and continued to be kept up, as a border fortress, till the union of the two crowns by the accession of James VI. At this time, the town was reduced to such a state of destitution, that the inhabitants, unable to build a church, obtained from that monarch a grant of the castle, for a place of public worship; and during the wars in the reign of Charles I., the town suffered so severely, that, by way of compensation, the parliament, after the restoration of Charles II., granted to the corporation the privilege of collecting customs and other duties for their relief. The Highland army, on their retreat before the Duke of Cumberland, in the rebellion of 1745, encamped here on the night of the 28th of December, after having lost great numbers of their men, who were drowned while attempting to cross the rivers Esk and Eden.
   The town, which is pleasantly situated on the eastern bank of the river Annan, about a couple of miles from its influx into Solway Frith, consists of several spacious and regularly-formed streets, intersecting each other at right angles; and is connected with the country lying upon the opposite bank of the river, by an elegant stone bridge of three arches of 65 feet span, erected in 1824, at an expense of £8000. The houses are well built, and of handsome appearance, and in the immediate vicinity are numerous villas and mansions; the streets are paved and lighted, and the inhabitants amply supplied with good water. A public library is supported by subscription. From the beauty of the scenery in the environs of the town, and the facilities of seabathing afforded by the Frith, it is a favourite place of residence. The spinning of cotton-yarn, which was introduced here in 1785, is still carried on, and affords employment to about 140 persons; the factory, in which the most improved machinery is employed, has been recently enlarged, and the quantity of yarn produced averages 4000 pounds per week. The usual handicraft trades requisite for the supply of the neighbourhood, are pursued; and there are numerous shops, amply stocked with various kinds of merchandise. The trade of the port partly consists in the importation of timber, deals, lath-wood, and tar, from America and the Baltic, in which two vessels are employed; and about thirty vessels are engaged in the coasting trade. The exports are chiefly grain for the Glasgow and Liverpool markets, and timber and freestone, for various English ports. By the steamers which frequent the port, grain, wool, live stock, bacon, and hams, are sent to Liverpool and the adjacent towns of Lancashire, from which they bring manufactured goods; and the other imports are mostly coal, slates, salt, herrings, grain, and iron, from Glasgow and places on the English and Irish coasts. The number of vessels registered as belonging to the port, is 34, of the aggregate burthen of 1639 tons. The port, which is under the custom-house of Dumfries, and is formed by an inlet from the river, has been much improved by the embankment of Hall meadow, on the Newby estate, by the proprietor, John Irving, Esq., at a cost of £3000, which has rendered the channel of sufficient depth for the safe anchorage of vessels of considerable burthen. Two piers have been erected by the proprietors of the steamers frequenting the port, to which has been formed a road from the burgh, by subscription, at a cost of £640; and a commodious inn, with good stabling, has been built near the jetties, within the enbankment.
   The ancient records of the burgh having been destroyed during the frequent devastations of the town, a charter confirming all previous privileges, and reciting a charter of James V. in 1538, by which it had been erected into a royal burgh, was granted by James VI., in the year 1612; and under this the government of the town is in the controul of a provost, two bailies, and fifteen councillors. There are no incorporated guilds, neither have the burgesses any exclusive privileges in trade; the magistrates issue tickets of admission to the freedom of a burgess, without any fee. Courts are held, both for civil and criminal cases; but in neither do the magistrates exercise jurisdiction to any considerable extent. The burgh is associated with those of Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben, and Sanquhar, in returning a member to the imperial parliament; the parliamentary boundaries are not co-extensive with the royalty, which comprehends a much wider district; the number of qualified voters is about 180. A new prison, containing three cells, was erected some years ago, in lieu of the old prison, which is dilapidated. A market is held on Thursday; and fairs, chiefly for hiring servants, are held annually, on the first Thursdays in May and August, and the third Thursday in October. Facilities of inland communication are afforded by good roads, of which the turnpike-road from Dumfries to Carlisle passes through the parish, and by cross-roads connected with those to Edinburgh and Glasgow.
   The parish is about eight miles in extreme length, and varies from two and a half to four miles in breadth, comprising an area of 11,100 acres, of which about 1000 are woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable, meadow, and pasture. The surface is generally level, with a slight inclination towards the south, and is intersected by three nearly parallel ridges of moderate height. Of these, the western ridge terminates in a conical hill called Woodcock-air, which has an elevation of 320 feet, and is completely covered with wood; and on the coast, are the Annan and Barnkirk hills, of which the former has an elevation of 256, and the latter of 120 feet above the sea. The soil, on the banks of the river, is a rich alluvial deposit; to the west, a clayey loam, alternated with gravel; towards the east, a poor deep loam; and in the northern districts, mostly light, with tracts of moor and moss. The chief crops are grain of all kinds, and the most improved system of husbandry is generally in use; a large open common, of nearly 2000 acres, has been divided among the burgesses, and is now inclosed and cultivated; the farm-buildings are substantial and well arranged. The pastures are rich; the cattle are of the Galloway breed, with a few of the Ayrshire and shorthorned; there are few sheep reared, but on most of the farms a considerable number of pigs are fed. Salmon, grilse, and trout are found in the Annan, and in the Frith; and in the former are three fisheries, one the property of Mr. Irving; the fish taken are, sparling, cod, haddock, sturgeon, turbot, soles, and skate. The rateable annual value of the parish is £13,297, including £5163 for the burgh. The principal substrata are, fine sandstone well adapted for building, limestone, and ironstone; several attempts have been made to discover coal, which are supposed to have failed only from the borings not having been made to a sufficient depth. Mount Annan, the seat of the late Lieut.-Gen. Dirom, is a handsome mansion, situated on an eminence on the eastern bank of the Annan, about two miles from the town, commanding a fine view of the Frith and the northern counties of England; the grounds are tastefully embellished, and the scenery is picturesque. Warmanbie, on the east bank of the Annan, about half a mile to the south of Mount Annan, is an elegant mansion, erected within the last few years, and surrounded with pleasure-grounds; and Northfield House, on the same river, is also a handsome mansion, recently enlarged.
   The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Annan and synod of Dumfries; the minister's stipend is £279. 2. 4., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum; patron, Hope Johnstone, Esq., of Annandale. The church, erected in 1790, is a handsome structure, with a spire, and contains 1190 sittings. A second church, situated on the south of the town, a very handsome building, affording accommodation to 950 persons, was erected at a cost of £1400, and opened in 1842; and there are also places of worship for Episcopalians, Independents, Roman Catholics, members of the Free Church, United Associate Synod, and Relief Church. The parochial school is attended by nearly 100 children; the master has a salary of £31. 16. 6., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £40 per annum. The Annan academy, for which a building has been erected, containing commodious class-rooms, was built and endowed with the funds arising to the burgh from the division of the common land; it is under the direction of a rector and two assistant masters, and is attended by 140 pupils; the income from the endowment is £113, and the fees are considerable. The only remains of the castle of Annan, are, a small portion of one of the walls, incorporated in the town-hall, and a stone built into a wall of a small house, with the inscription, "Robert de Brus, Comte de Carrick, et seiniour de Val de Annand, 1300." About two miles from the town, and to the north of the Carlisle road, was a rude monument to the memory of the Scots who fell in a battle with the English, in which the latter were defeated, with great slaughter; among the English slain in the conflict, were, Sir Marmaduke Longdale, Sir Philip Musgrave, and Lord Howard, whose remains were interred in the churchyard of Dornock. Close to the spot, is a well in which the Scots washed their swords after the battle, and which has since been called the "Sword Well." Near the site of the castle, is an artificial mound, supposed to have been the spot for administering justice, during the times of the Saxons; and further up the river, is an elevated bank called Galabank, the place of execution. On Battle Hill, has been lately discovered a mineral spring, of great strength, which has not yet been analysed. The celebrated Dr. Thomas Blacklock; Hugh Clapperton, the African traveller; and the late Rev. Edward Irving, minister of the Scottish church in Regent-square, London, were natives of the place.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.

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  • Annan — may refer to:People* Kofi Annan, (b 1938), former Secretary General of the United Nations (1/Jan/1997 1/Jan/2007) * Kojo Annan, (b 1973), Kofi Annan s son * Noel Gilroy Annan, (1916 – 2000) was a member of the House of Lords and British academic… …   Wikipedia

  • Annan — ist der Name folgender Personen: Alyson Annan (* 1973), australische Feldhockeyspielerin Anthony Annan (* 1986), ghanaischer Fußballspieler Daniel Francis Annan (1928–2006), ghanaischer Jurist und Politiker Kofi Annan (* 1938), ehemaliger… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Annan — (spr. Ännan), 1) Fluß in der schottischen Grafschaft Dumfries, mündet in den Solwaybusen, schiffbar u. lachsreich; 2) Stadt am Flusse gleiches Namens, Hafen, Lachsfang, Küstenschifffahrt; 4600 Ew …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Annan — (spr. ännen), Stadt (royal burgh) in Dumfriesshire (Schottland), 3 km oberhalb der Mündung des Annan in den Solway Firth, hier von einem Eisenbahnviadukt überspannt, der 1880 teilweise zusammenstürzte. A. hat Baumwollspinnerei und (1901) 5804… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Annan — (spr. ännän), Hafenstadt in der schott. Grafsch. Dumfries, l. am River A., (1901) 5804 E …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Annan — Annan, Kofi Annan, Kofi …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Annan — Annan, Stadt in Schottland, unweit des Solwaybusens, 8000 E., Hafen, Handelsverkehr …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Annan — (Kofi) (né en 1938) diplomate ghanéen; secrétaire général de l ONU depuis le 1er janv. 1997 …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Annan — [an′ən, ä′nən] Kofi [kō′fē] 1938 ; Ghanaian diplomat: secretary general of the United Nations (1997 ) …   English World dictionary

  • Annan — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sommaire 1 Patronyme 2 Politique 3 Sport …   Wikipédia en Français

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